Quick Tip: Launch URL for Dynamics 365

Today I discovered by accident, an useful setting in Office 365 App launcher. Here is how the Office 365 App launcher looks like

App Launcher.png

This UI is shown when you click the launcher icon next to “Dynamics 365”. You can set an URL to open when you click this icon, instead of navigating to the default “home.dynamics.com”. You do this by clicking the gear icon on the top right and choosing “Preferences”.


Set Url.png

Once this is set, you can head straight to the normal CRM Dynamics 365 area, instead of “home.dynamics.com” when you click the Dynamics 365 icon in the launcher.



Gotcha: DateTimeKind and FetchXml

I was going through the FetchXML schema and found these two interesting attributes. The first one is “utc-offset” on the “fetch” node.


The other one is “usertimezone” on the “attribute” node.


Both these attributes give an impression, that it is possible to return datetime attributes in a different timezone instead of UTC, but in reality they don’t seem to do anything.

The only way to return datetime in the user’s local timezone, is by using the deprecated ExecuteFetchRequest. I will demonstrate this with XrmToolBox. This is my simple fetch query.


Below is the raw fetch result


Below is the table grid result


I execute the FetchXML using the FetchXML Builder tool. As you can see, the datetime values are different. This is because when you use “RetrieveMultiple” to execute the fetch query, the datetime returned is always UTC and has to be converted to the local timezone. ExecuteFetchRequest is now deprecated and RetrieveMultiple is the recommended way to execute fetchxml. These two points really puzzle me:

  1. Why user-timezone and utc-offset don’t seem to do anything. Are they internally used?
  2. Why MS decided to change the datetime behaviour

So, this is a good point to remember when you are executing fetchxml using “FetchXML Tester” or have set the Result view to Raw fetch result in “FetchXML Builder” or using a mixture of ExecuteFetchRequest and RetrieveMultiple in your code.


  1. ExecuteFetchRequest class
  2. XrmToolBox Issue #326


Server Side Sync – Polling interval

I have been battling with getting server side sync and forward mailbox working the way I want it to over the last couple of weeks. Googling hasn’t helped me a lot on this regard, and so in this post I will explain my understanding of the server side sync process.

The biggest hurdle that I faced in understanding the server side sync process is how little detail there is in the mailbox sync errors. I am not talking about the CRM Tracing, just the standard OOB logging in the application (like workflow error). Lot of times, I have seen unknown errors and mailboxes getting disabled randomly, but no detailed log in the application to indicate what the issue could be.

I used the following query in LINQPad with the CRM driver installed.

from m in MailboxSet
where m.EmailAddress == "email@email.com"
select new {
PostponeMailboxProcessingUntil = m.PostponeMailboxProcessingUntil.Value.ToLocalTime(),
ProcessingLastAttemptedOn = m.ProcessingLastAttemptedOn.Value.ToLocalTime(),
ReceivingPostponedUntil = m.ReceivingPostponedUntil.Value.ToLocalTime(),
PostponeSendingUntil = m.PostponeSendingUntil.Value.ToLocalTime(),

Here is a sample result.


Based my tests, here is how I think it works for incoming email. The same is true for outbound emails. I am assuming that the mailboxes are not disabled and email address is approved:

  1. Async service starts to process the email at time specified in the PostponeMailboxProcessingUntil field
  2. Async service starts processing the inbound emails and creates email records in CRM
  3. In order to set the PostponeMailboxProcessingUntil and the ReceivingPostponedUntil , for the next run async service looks into the NoEmailCount field field. The NoEmailCount field is incremented every time the async service attempts to process email. If it did create some emails in CRM, the counter is reset to zero.

Based on my tests, I believe that if no email is sent/received in 15 minutes, the polling period is fixed at around 5 minutes. Here are my test results.


As you can see based on my tests, the polling interval gradually starts climbing when there are no emails to process and hovers around 5 minutes, after 15 minutes of inactivity i.e. no email records were created on CRM and/or no emails were sent from CRM.

If you have a queue setup in CRM, and forward an email to the queue, 5 minutes is a very long time to wait for the async service to pickup the email from Exchange. I saw couple of posts about how this polling interval can be changed by modifying the “Minimum Polling Interval” field.


The recommended value for this field is “0” and even when I changed this to 1 minute, I haven’t seen it influence the “ProcessingLastAttemptedOn“. I tried to change “PostponeMailboxProcessingUntil” and “ReceivingPostponedUntil” for the mailbox though the SDK, but since they are readonly fields, they cannot be changed. All the tests were carried out in OnPrem CRM2015, and so I cannot confirm whether this is the same behaviour in CRM2016 or Dynamics 365.

EDIT (18/11/2016): This 5 minute polling interval seems to be a “by-design” behavior. Thank you Andre Margono for sending this info. Here is what the MSDN article says:

When synchronization by using server-side synchronization occurs, the process is dynamic and unique for each user’s mailbox. The synchronization algorithm ensures that mailboxes are synced according to dynamic parameters such as the number of email messages and the activity within the mailbox. Normally, email synchronization occurs every 5 minutes. When a mailbox has many email messages, the interval can be reduced dynamically to 2 minutes. If the mailbox is less active, the interval can be increased up to 12 minutes. Generally speaking, you can assume that a mailbox will be synced at least once every 12 minutes. Note that you can’t manually synchronize records through server-side synchronization and when you track email (Track button), this occurs immediately.

tl;dr; If your CRM application is not processing any email (sending/receiving) in 15 minutes, the polling interval will eventually be fixed at around 5 minutes. When an email is received, async service will start processing more frequently, but the polling period will slowly climb with no-activity until it gets to 5 minutes.

Understanding Process Triggers and Business Rule internals

One of the less utilised/understood feature of Business Rule is Process Triggers. In this post, I will explain what a process trigger is and how you can use this in the context of business rule.

The Basics

Business Rule is basically a workflow that has a different UI compared to the standard workflow editor. You can quickly find all the business rules in your CRM instance by running this query.

Business Rules

Internals – How does Business Rules work

You can basically skip this part, if you are not interested in understanding the internals on how a business rules work. When you create a business rules you basically have all these components that make the business rules run seamlessly:

  1. The client side code that runs on the form
  2. The server side workflow defined in xaml
  3. Process trigger -> This dictates when the business rule logic should execute

When you design a business rule, it is automatically translated into a workflow xaml that executes on the server side and JavaScript code that executes on the client side.

Now, let us take a simple example of a business rule that sets the “Salutation”, when “Gender” is changed. Here is the business rule

Business Rule Definition

When you save this business rule, this is automatically translated into JavaScript, code that can run on the client side. Below is the JavaScript code that is generated by CRM, for this business rule:

function pbl_109af564df34e51180eac4346bc576e8() {
    try {
        var v0 = Xrm.Page.data.entity.attributes.get('gendercode');
        var v1 = Xrm.Page.data.entity.attributes.get('salutation');
        if (((v0) == undefined || (v0) == null || (v0) === "") || ((v1) == undefined || (v1) == null || (v1) === "")) {
        var v2 = (v0) ? v0.getValue() : null ;
        if ((v2) === (1)) {
        } else if ((v2) === (2)) {
    } catch (e) {
        Mscrm.BusinessRules.ErrorHandlerFactory.getHandler(e, arguments.callee).handleError();

Below is the JavaScript code this calls the “pbl_109af564df34e51180eac4346bc576e8” function that contains the logic for the business rule.

Mscrm.BusinessRulesScript.Initialize = function() {
    Mscrm.BusinessRulesScript.AttributesOnChangeHandlers = {};
    Mscrm.BusinessRulesScript.ControlsOnClickHandlers = {};
    (function() {
        var onchangehandler = function() {
        Mscrm.BusinessRulesScript.AttributesOnChangeHandlers['gendercode'] = onchangehandler;
        var attributeObject = Xrm.Page.data.entity.attributes.get('gendercode');
        if (attributeObject != null && attributeObject != undefined) {

From the above, triggering code we can see that the business rule is going to run when the form is opened, as the function “pbl_109af564df34e51180eac4346bc576e8” is called when the business rule is initiated. The function also executes when “Gender” is changed.

If you want to know what the generated JavaScript code for the business rule is, just get the “ClientData” field in the “Workflow” entity. You cannot get this field from Advanced Find. You can either use FetchXML Builder (a XrmToolBox tool) or LINQPad. Below is the fetchxml query, I used.


If you also get the “xaml” field on the workflow entity, you can see the markup server side workflow logic that will execute.

Process Trigger

Process Trigger dictates the events that will trigger the execution of business rule. There are three events:

  1. Load
  2. Change
  3. Save

“Load” and “Change” are the standard triggers when the business rule is created through the UI. “Save” is a special handler. It can only be set using the SDK and not through the UI. It behaves little differently compared to “Load”. The JavaScript code that is generated for “Save” is little different compared to the code that is generated for “Load”. Here is the LINQ query I used for getting process triggers for this workflow.


Now let us update the “load” trigger to “save”, so that the generated JavaScript for the business rule will run only on “Form Save” event and not on “Form Load”. Here is the simple snippet I ran to do this, after I got the ids of the process trigger in the previous LINQ Query. These process triggers are for the “load” events associated to our business rule. You have to deactivate the business rule, before you update the process trigger for the business rule.

Process Trigger Update

Now comes the important bit: Activate the business rule from the Advanced Find results (first screenshot). Don’t activate the business rule from the standard business rule window. If you activate the business rule from the standard UI, your process trigger will reset back to “load”

ActivateDont Activate

Now that the trigger is set to “Save”, lets compare the generated JavaScript code.

Compare Load and Save

As we can see, in the case of “save” process trigger, the client side business rule code runs only on “Save”. I like this, because I don’t want the business rule to run on “load” and confuse the user with “Unsaved changes” message. I will demonstrate this with a scenario.

Scenario: User opens a contact record, which doesn’t have the “Salutation” field set. Gender contains a valid value. The process trigger is “load”

Form OnLoad

As you can see from the above screenshot, the business rule ran immediately on form load, and set the Salutation to “Mr”. Hence, you have a unsaved changes message, on the bottom right. I am not very happy with this result because, it is not obvious to the user what changed and what caused the change. I want more control, so I want this rule to run only after “Save”. Now look at the same form, when the trigger is “Save”

Form OnSave

As you can see, the “Salutation” field is not set immediately. It will be set only

  1. When the form is saved OR
  2. When the “Gender” field is changed

One more thing: Every time when you deactivate and reactivate a business rule, new process triggers records are created, and so you have to get the correct ids when you update the “event” attribute.

I hope you can now understand the internals of business rule and how to use process trigger to control its behaviour.


  1. TechNet: Create and edit business rules
  2. MSDN – Create or edit how business rules are initiated



Quicktip: Linq query with Optionset condition

LinqPad is a great tool to quickly query CRM and export the records you want, for further processing. LinqPad Driver for Dynamics CRM is what this post is about – specifically on how to use “FormattedValues” in your queries. There are formatted values for Money, Optionset and DateTime. I will demonstrate on how to use Optionset text values in where condition.

For example this is how you can query all the open opportunities.

from q in OpportunitySet.AsEnumerable()
where q.FormattedValues["statecode"].ToLower() == "open"
select new { q.CreatedOn, q.Id, StateCodeName = q.FormattedValues["statecode"], q.StateCode }

The critical bit here is the “AsEnumerable”. If you don’t convert your set to an Enumerable, you would get this error.


There is a another LinqPad Driver for CRM (https://github.com/kenakamu/CRMLinqPadDriverWebAPI), but you wont be able to run similar query as WebAPI doesn’t seem to be exposing the “FormattedValues” property for each record.

Debugging custom workflow assemblies

Plugin Registration tool can be used to debug not just plugin assemblies, but also custom workflow assemblies. I am not sure how well known this feature is, as I could not find any documentation about this in msdn.


Use the correct version of Plugin Registration tool for your organisation. I could not use Plugin Registration tool that came along with CRM SDK 7.1.1, to debug a workflow assembly running in CRM 2015 Update 0.1 (7.0.1). I could however use Plugin Registration tool to debug workflow assembly running in CRMOnline 2016 ( So, it seems the major version and minor version have to match to enable workflow assembly debugging.

After installing the profile, select the plugin profile node. You will now see a new button called “Profile Workflow

Workflow Profile Button

Next, choose the CRM workflow which contains the custom workflow assembly. If the workflow has multiple custom workflow assembly steps, you will see each of these in this screen. You can choose the assembly to profile. It is best to choose “Persist to Entity” option, as you won’t see the exception when it is thrown by the workflow.Profile Settings


Once you click OK, a clone of the workflow will be created. It will have “(Profiled)” in the end. Your original workflow will now be in “Draft” state.

Workflow Cloned

Now execute the profiled workflow manually. Confirm that the workflow has finished running.

Workflow Log

Once the workflow has completed running, you can now use the serialised profile to debug the workflow assembly. After you click the “Replay Plugin Execution” button you will see this screen, which will help you to select the correct profile record.

Debug Profile Selection

I ran the workflow manually only once and hence there is only one profile row. If the workflow ran multiple times, you will see multiple rows. After you click select, you’ll then have to choose the correct workflow assembly that matches this profile.

Start Debug

Now attach the Visual Studio Debugger to the Plugin Registration Tool. Now is also a good time to put couple of breakpoints in the workflow assembly code in Visual Studio. Once you click “Start Execution”, the control should now be transferred to Visual Studio to facilitate debugging.

Visual Studio Debug

The behaviour is exactly same as plugin debugging. You can step though the code, understand the root cause of any weird behaviour and resolve it. Once you complete the execution, you will see the trace logs in the profiler.

Debug Result

One more thing: You can use this exact same process to debug an Action which has a custom assembly. Here is how the profile looks when an action with custom workflow assembly is profiled.

Debug an action

Things to note:

  1. When a workflow step is profiled, the workflow assembly containing this activity is cloned and registered as a profiled workflow assembly. It is this assembly that is used in the workflow that has the name ending with “(Profiled)”
  2. Even though you can see the workflow being profiled, stopping the workflow profile using the Plugin Registration tool seems impossible. You can see what is being profiled.Profiled Workflow
  3. In order to stop profiling, you’ll have to
    • Unpublish and delete the workflow/action that ends with “(Profiled)
    • Delete the weirdly named assembly (all guid name) from the “Default Solution“. This will be under the “Plugin Assemblies” nodeCloned Workflow Assembly

I hope this technique will help you to debug custom workflow assemblies quite easily. Happy debugging.

EDIT (01/07/2016): Please refer Issues in debugging custom workflow assemblies where I address the issues in the comment.

Quicktip: Debugging merged plugin assembly

Plugin profiling and debugging is a very useful feature in the plugin registration tool. It helps you to debug and step through the plugin code in your local machine with Visual Studio, using the serialised plugin context. The serialised context can also be stored in CRM and debug can be initiated from this record.

Profile Screen

There is one small issue when you try to debug a IL Merged assembly. When you try to profile such a plugin assembly, you will get an error like this.

PluginRegTool Error

The error is saying that the plugin profiler cannot locate the assembly that was merged with the main plugin assembly.


Copy all the assemblies that were merged with the plugin assembly that you are trying to debug, into the same directory as the Plugin Registration tool executable.

I experienced this issue when I was trying to debug a plugin assembly merged using the CRM Solution Manager.

Further reading:

Debug a plugin – https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/gg328574.aspx